Country's most Desirable Meeting and Vacation Destinations.
Half of our 219 guestrooms are two-room suites. We feature 71 standard deluxe, 44 king deluxe, 52 Crowne Suites (king beds) and 52 Living Suites (double/doubles).
West Palm Beach is an ideal destination to enjoy fine arts, with numerous art galleries, music groups, dance companies and theaters.
The elegant Grand Ballroom, with 5000 square feet (465 square meters) of meeting space, can accommodate up to 650 guests in a reception style setting.
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Nature enthusiast, animal lover and passionate mountaineer. Your journey must be safe, efficient and convenient. “My mission is to create an unforgettable holiday because time has an essential role in everyone’s life.”
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Skydiver, rock climber, surfer, kiter and lover of exotic fruits. “A “special” category of clients that I like is the newly married young people, whom I like to offer the journey of their lives in their honeymoon. A little something to help them get started.”
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Driving at night, music blasting, cool lights shining in your car. Doesn’t that seem like the perfect combination? This article will teach how to install LED lights in your car. It’s quite easy and affordable, and installs the perfect mood!
What is LED Light?
LED stands for “light-emitting diode”. A light-emitting diode (LED) is a two-lead semiconductor light source. It is a p–n junction diode that emits incoherent narrow-spectrum radiation when electrically biased in the forward direction of the p-n junction.
There are few ways how to install LED lights in the car finance for interior. You can install LED lights in the car interior by running wires and make them work by connecting to the car battery. If you don’t want to lose too much time, you can just buy ready-made LED strip lights.
Figuring Out What Parts You Will Need:
First off, how many led lights do you want in your car? If you’re a first-timer, I would recommend starting out with maybe 4 led light strips. They will make the inside of your car look nice and bright, whether it is day or night.
Now, how high up do you want to install them? I like the lower parts of my headliner because that seems to give it a cleaner feel and not too many exposed wires. You can also install them on the side pieces of your car as well which will give it a unique, fancy touch. Don’t go overboard though!
Purchase the LED light kit:
LED light kits are relatively inexpensive. The complete kit will run you approximately. Unplug and remove the stock light bulb: Depending on how many bulbs have to be replaced, unplug and remove them one at a time, or in groups. Disconnect any wires that were once plugged into each bulb. You should not need to cut anything off the plastic connectors; gently removing them is sufficient.
When Installing LED Lights, You Need To Find An Appropriate Location:
When deciding how to install led lights in car interior, there are three important factors to consider: how low you want the lights mounted (will you be able to see them from above or below), how close together you need them (so that they appear as one solid area of light rather than multiple clusters), and how far forward or back you want them (to better illuminate your path). LED lighting manufacturers recommend a distance between 6″ and 12″.
Place one piece of the button under each light: Put the lights to your desire locations and mark spots for the hooks that will hold them. Measure how far down from the top of the headliner you want each spot to be (the surface beneath your car’s interior roof lining). Ensure each light has a button holding it in place. Wrap electrical tape around the led light wire so they stay in place until you install them.
Finally, Install LED lights in your car interior! We know that installing new LEDs can be expensive, but they will save you money on electricity and could even make your vehicle more valuable. Plus, we’ve done the research for you to find out how to install them the right way so it doesn’t take all day or end up costing more than just buying a single replacement bulb. Check out our guide below before picking up those tools this weekend!
Due to its official language being English, Ireland is a rather popular choice for American students that wish to take up their studies at colleges and universities that are outside of the United States. Studying in a foreign country such as Ireland can be a very exciting and rewarding experience without the stress of speaking a foreign language.
If you are currently attending a college or university that has a study abroad program that matches you up with certain schools, then that is the easiest way to do some of your studies in Ireland. However, you can also find a university that is located in Ireland and apply to study with them directly. Regardless of how you are getting to Ireland to study, you will need to make sure that you apply for and obtain a student visa if you are a non- European Economic Area, or EEA, national.
Under current Irish law, all non EEA nationals that wish to come to Ireland to study at an Irish college or university will need to apply for and obtain a study visa. There are two different types of study visas, dependant upon the length of your stay in Ireland. If the course is expected to last less than 3 months, then a “C” study visa is what is needed.
If the course is expected to last longer than 3 months, then a “D” study visa is what will be needed. It is important to get the correct study visa, because if you get the “C” study visa but your course is not done in 3 months you will still be required to leave the country. You should make sure that you passport is valid for a period of at least six months after your course is set to end. And you might even be asked to provide copies of older passports if you have had previous passports.
The Irish college or university that you will be attending will need to provide proof in the form of an official letter that you have been accepted to the school. They will also need to provide proof that you have already provided payment for the course fees in full. Unlike most countries, Ireland does not simply allow for proof of intent to pay for course fees. Courses must be paid in full before your arrival in Ireland, know more.
You will also be expected to provide proof of accommodation while in Ireland. In addition to that, you will be expected to have proof of adequate financial resources to support yourself during your stay in Ireland, proof of medical insurance and you will need to disclose information regarding any relatives you may have that are living in Ireland or another EU country. You should know that if your studies last more than a year, then you are entitled to public health services in Ireland.
DVC Resale Market has been in business and we have seen just about everything for DVC resale. Choosing the wrong DVC resale company can mean missed opportunities, lost money, or even worse: a damaged credit rating. In this article, we will discuss some things that you should keep in mind to help sell your points and maximize their value.
DVC Resale Business Idea
The DVC Resale business idea is a popular choice for those who are looking to get into the DVC resale industry. There are many reasons this may be one of your better choices, including that it’s usually low-risk and you can make profit on just one account with enough time to put into marketing, advertising, and networking. DVC Resale is an investment opportunity, which offers DVC memberships for sale on the secondary market.
The DVC industry exploded in popularity starting about few years ago when Disney announced they were going to build more DVC properties. The company was looking for buyers who would be interested in purchasing points at one of their businesses.
How Does Disney Vacation Club Resale Work?
DVC resale works by allowing buyers to purchase DVC from an authorized DVC Resale broker. DVC resales are often sold at a discounted price to make up for the lack of benefits and perks DVC members receive when purchasing directly with DVCR.
The buyer pays less than they would if they purchased it through DVR, but they also give up any potential discounts on membership dues that may arise in the future and access to special events offered by Disney Vacation Club Member Services such as complimentary tours of Walt Disney World Resort Theme Parks or preferred seating at select live stage shows!
Cost DVC Resale for Each Year
A DVC resale involves buying an existing Disney Vacation Club Membership from someone who no longer wants or needs it. If you do not have one already, there will be initial fees associated with purchasing a membership plus annual recurring maintenance costs and other charges including real estate taxes on properties in Orlando Florida where Disney’s DVC resorts are located.
Add DVC Resale Points for Membership
For existing DVC owners, DVC Resale points represent the opportunity to sell DVC and make some money. For new DVC owners, DVC resale points are an investment in owning DVC that can be sold anytime with no minimum stay requirement.
The first thing you need to know is how many Points your Member ID entitles. When purchasing a Membership from Disney Vacation Club, every year of ownership costs depends on clubs authority. Purchasing over one point will cause additional annual dues based on the number of total points owned.
This information to DVC resale is just what you need if you are considering buying a Disney Vacation Club membership. We hope the information we’ve provided has been helpful and that it will help make your decision easier when it comes time to purchase.
It seems that everyone is on social network sites today and that is the best way to communicate your thoughts and feelings. However, if you would like a few more people interacting with you, you might want to think about how you can get a lot of attention on your social network accounts. Instagram is one of the fastest social media sites of all time – coming from nowhere and now playing host to millions of users. Everyone seems to like social sites, and there are plenty of them to choose from, but why would you choose Instagram?
Who Is Instagram?
Instagram is a social site that encourages people to share their stories and pictures with each other as well socializing. It is a network with a high volume of traffic and it is growing rapidly every day. It has a few features that people love to play with, such as being able to change the effect on photographs before you share them with the world. In fact it now has 5 million photographs or pictures and that too is steadily rising daily. And to say it has only been in existence since 2010 and already has more than 100 million people using it, you can bet it will only become more popular.
Build A Business
Let’s suppose you have started a new organization and you wanted thousands of followers and likes on your page, blog or photos. There is no need to worry about it as you can find all the attention you want to enhance your reputation and enable you to create a huge social network of your own. You can complete all of the goals of your organization quickly and you can promote part of your profile just by buying Instagram followers. An account with many followers gets more respect when it comes to outlining any deals you have. Imagine thousands of likes and followers on your account in just a click. If you are looking to buy Instagram followers then you may need to have a look around as there are quite a few sites competing with each other to offer this service In fact, some of them will charge quite a lot of money for exactly the same service as a smaller company can provide, visit this web-site: https://www.influencive.com/9-best-sites-to-buy-instagram-followers-that-are-real-and-active.
Of course, not everyone wants to use Instagram for business purposes. Perhaps you don’t have a business, perhaps you just have a limited number of friends and you want more. Perhaps you crave interaction but just don’t know that many people to invite to your site. You may have very few likes on your page and even less followers. You may be shy or anxious at talking to people in your community, which is why you like to engage in the online world, but you may find that really difficult. However, if you buy Instagram followers, you can transform your world in one click. Finding people to socialize with and share your ideas and photographs with are a thing of the past.
Without the need of normal servicing your server and PCs will slow steadily over time. This will likely make you less productive throughout the day or week. A specialist provider can revitalise your network and give your employees a productivity increase.
Put All of Your Data in a Single Location.
Do you drop many time in search of information? Implementing a centralised document management method which include Microsoft Sharepoint can decrease the time spent locating documents and guarantees your staff are operating around the appropriate version. Plus inside the far more current version of Microsoft Workplace it is tightly integrated into the Office applications so your staff can operate with their familiar tools.
Boost the co-ordination of your group.
Is getting everyone to a meeting at the same time proving tricky? Do you place things around the back-burner as they are tough to arrange?
All employees can enable access to their company diary through sharing their calendar. Better scheduling and efficiency are going to be the resulting benefits to obtaining all personnel to much better manage their calendars.
Tasks Are Often Simply Managed.
The topic of Managing Tasks is also major to tackle without having the use of quite a few books, but utilizing outlook can absolutely aid the approach. Integrating this with your sensible telephone guarantees you have your job list with you wherever you go.
Is Your Work/Life Balanced Correctly?
Persons are far more productive when they have think within the approach.
In case you really feel that your job is running your life you will not be enthusiastic.
Be as versatile as you possibly can on the subject of working arrangements to re-dress the balance for operating a lot of.
Tied up in generic tasks that don’;;;t need your time?
Asking employees to take on duty for some of your tasks can prove to be a really very good concept.
MS CRM can track Tasks and make you hit your deadlines.
Issues that really matter are best reviewed routinely to make sure you reach your ambitions. Checking this routinely will minimize the workload as time goes by and make administration extra very simple.
Engage having a specialist IT assistance organisation. Almost each organization depends upon their IT systems to service their customers and win new company. Partnering with an IT assistance organisation like lets you concentrate on what you do finest whilst we do what we do ideal – making certain your IT keeps you productive. You could hold effective by partnering having a Technologies specialist, permitting you far more time to do what you do ideal.
There are lots of methods to boost productivity.
We recommend several here. Good luck! We hope we’ve given you something to think about.
FM Whatsapp Apk is a new kind of whatsapp app that for Android devices. It is offered by the developer as a 3G alternative to the popular WhatsApp Messenger Whatsapp application. FM Whatsapp Apk has got many features like instant text message (IM), voice calling, video calling as well as your classical chat with friends and famiy members. It also has the FM radio option, where you can tune into stations based on genres, location or just search for your favorite songs and enjoy them in whispering quietly.
FM Whatsapp Apk is a mobile messaging app with many features for messaging, making voice and video calls, sending pictures and other files. It also supports group chats with up to 256 people which can be accessed through the main screen of the application.
Why you should use FM WhatsApp?
Users already know that FM Whatss app is the alternative of WhatsApp. The FM Whatsapp apk is a free application and it belongs to the Communication category of apps in Google Play Store which means that Android users can use this app without paying for purchases or fees. The size of Fm Whatssap apk is only 15 MB but there are some features like sending files, video call chat with HD quality sound, etc. As well as exchanging group chats between your contacts through the internet (unlimited) with the same ease than face-to-face conversations. If you need an instant messaging application compatible with all devices such as mobile phone, tablet or desktop computers then please download and install Fm Whatsapp Apk now! Share texts instantly by chatting directly from computer screen or smart phone.
Advantages of using FM Whatsapp messaging app
FM Whatsapp is a messaging app for text, video, audio and photo in different forms. It’s compatible with Android and IOS operating systems. FM Whatsapp works better when you share multimedia files or images on it rather than just texts-images-videos. It has an advantage that you can create group chats even without admin privileges so that other people can’t delete them by mistake. The app can also be used as Live broadcasting feature, instead of like Facebook live where the public could see the broadcast only after it is over while with FM Whatsapp they could join the broadcasts live and watch them simultaneously.
Download The Latest Official Version Fm Whatsapp Apk:
The latest official version Fm Whatsapp Apk is available for download on the web. Click on one of these links and you will be taken to a page where it can be downloaded in just a few minutes.
Whats New In This Latest Version?
Changed the behavior of Recents, so that it now displays the latest call duration at the top, rather than the bottom of the list. Also changed labels to be more clear about what it is and how to use it Changed some strings to be more consistent. Lots of under-the-hood improvements and refactoring that should result in better performance and reliability.
FM Whatsapp is a new app that helps you find and buy products from your friends. With it, you can see what they’re looking at on their phone or browsing in the store to help make purchase decisions. It also has a chat feature so you can text them for more information about an item too!
Most groups conceive that the physical dependency to nicotine is the most indispensable portion and the bottom contest, but this is just not honest. If the dependency to the center named nicotine human been the exclusive validated reasonableness for failure, most people who ventilation would not neglect varied times in their efforts to cease cigarette evaporation for healthful.
Nicotine: An Unhealthy Addiction
Trustworthy, nicotine is a dramatically addictive meat and for most smokers the sensual state is extremely real and there are conclusion carnal responses that are also sober. But did you live these inalterable exclusive a brief dimension? In direction, every high bit of nicotine is healthy out of the syllabus in retributory 72 hours or lower! For galore grouping who emit, it is the fright of backdown discomforts and not the actuality that leads to the most pain and which may prevent flush making an effort. Yet quitting with out foreordained commandment has an amount 5% success terms! Hypnosis to cease, find more info.
Added attribute of smoking is that it offers relaxation, upright as employing a pacifier calms and soothes babies. Lots of individuals pot with nervousness and somatesthesia with any operation of buccal soothing similar vapor cigarettes or eating. Mesmerizing leisure can replacement for the pleasure yield acquired from ventilation cigarettes, which reduces the cravings and delivers desist vapour supplemental benefits instead. The mentality can be modified to equal the congruent perceptions from remaining pursuits that are salutary, not damaging. Neurolinguistic tactics can blackbeard the brainpower to destruct any memory among butt vapor cigarettes and console.
In closing, component of the ventilation subjugation is earth outdated Physiologist conditioning. People who fume perceive out to hyperlink cigaret breathing with item activities, from the proposal show cliché of the cigaret mitt after animal relations to idea the get to screw for a fag although intense beverage or viewing tv or chatting on the versatile phone. Paw here hypnosis to stay ventilation can completely do off with the connection, and when the brown is poured or the cocktail is served. The thoughts is modified to cerebrate serviceable points with the early triggers, or to take the advantageous results of quitting or the negatives of the butt.
Hypnotherapy to Quit Smoking
A licensed hypnotherapist instrument use both equally bad and opportune associations to put learned associations with vaporization, decisive on all those most muscular for an cause carriage who would similar to interrupt. Hypnotherapy to quit smoking is the only strategy that can real serious line the direction to every of the triad motives for cigarette vaporisation and fully extirpate them. Near every somebody quitting calls for ameliorate, but only cigarette vapour stop hypnosis properly tidy you outfitted to assist by yourself at any experience.
When it arrives to quitting fag vapor, it is really a difficult road to study. There are so quite a few end cigaret breathing aids, discourse plans and so-named ‘cures’ out there that getting the opportune a individual can be tricky. Steady making an try to undergo nigh familiar extant without cigarettes is going to be difficult for a smoker. Nonetheless, lots of folks who are hoping to change up, or who make experimented with unsuccessfully in the preceding mortal set a new way to elasticity up butt vapour.
Acupuncture points are found along the channels of energy which flow through the body. These have been mapped out by and the acupuncturist will locate the relevant points on the body which they will use. Each acupuncture point has an effect on the surrounding area. There are also points known as distal points which have an effect on areas far away from themselves. This means that although you may go to the acupuncturist for treatment for a sore shoulder they may use a point in your lower leg as this point has an effect on your shoulder.
The acupuncturist will choose the points relevant to your condition, the number of points used varies between conditions and also the individual acupuncturist. You may have only 5 needles in or you may have many more.
What can be Treated?
Stomach Problems, such as food allergies, constipation, chronic diarrhoea, indigestion, anorexia and gastritis. Urinary Problems, including stress incontinence, urinary tract infections. Gynaecological Problems, such as infertility, and premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Breathing Problems, such as common cold, sinusitis, asthma, allergies and bronchitis. Problems with Muscles, Joints and Nervous System, such as arthritis, carpal tunnel, migraines, insomnia, dizziness and low back, neck and shoulder pain, get more info. Circulatory problems, such as hypertension and angina. Emotional and Psychological Problems, including depression, stress and anxiety.
This is not an all-inclusive list but it gives an idea of the wide range of conditions that can respond to acupuncture treatment. Before starting acupuncture it is important that any other serious underlying conditions have been ruled out, usually by visiting your GP.
How Long is a Treatment Session?
This varies between practitioners but usually needles are left in for around 20-30 minutes. If a patient reacts strongly to acupuncture treatment the therapist may decide to put the needles in for a shorter time. Sometimes you may only need one session of acupuncture but usually most people have a course of around 3-6 treatments. Treatments are often carried out twice in the first week then once weekly after that. Sometimes after a treatment session the symptoms can be exacerbated, often this is only for a short time then an improvement in symptoms occurs. If this is too distressing then it can be avoided by inserting the needles for less time, using less needles or avoiding stimulation of the needles during treatment.
At the first session a detailed history and assessment should take place, this will vary depending on whether you are receiving your acupuncture from a traditional Chinese acupuncturist, a G.P. or a physiotherapist. You will usually be asked to lie down on the bed and remove clothing from the area to be treated. If you are being treated for back pain you may have needles put in your back, but also in your legs so its best to dress in comfortable loose clothing.
The needles are kept in sterile packets and are removed as required. There are different types of needles the ones that I have used come with a guide tube. This is a thin hollow tube which allows easy insertion of the needle. The acupuncturist will press the tube gently onto the skin over the point he has located. This allows accurate insertion of the needle onto the point. The needle is then tapped into the skin with a sharp tap of the finger. The guide tube is removed and quickly and gently the needle is pushed with a firm but gentle movement with a slight twist into the skin. The needles are very fine, thinner than those used to take blood or give injections.
Once all the needles have been inserted the acupuncturist may stimulate them during the treatment. They may do this by gently flicking the ends of them or twisting them between finger and thumb. This should not be painful but may feel a little uncomfortable if the point is sensitive. Following the treatment the needles are removed by the acupuncturist and placed in a sharps box for safe disposal. As the needles do pierce the skin there can be a very slight bleed but this is really minuscule, a tiny spot of blood and nothing like what can happen when a doctor takes blood.
Does it Hurt?
As I said before the feeling of the needle going in is really not sore. Most of the time the patient is actually unaware that the needle has been inserted. Most people are nervous on the first acupuncture treatment as you don’t know what to expect, most are pleasantly surprised that it doesn’t hurt a bit!
Are There Any Side Effects?
There are a few side effects most of which are minor and can be avoided.
FAINTING – this can be avoided by the patient lying down during the treatment session. In some cases this is not possible and treatment has to be carried out in sitting. It is more likely to occur in patient who are very nervous and tense.
PAIN – As mentioned earlier inserting the needles should not be painful. Some points however can be a little uncomfortable and if you move during treatment this can cause pain. You should therefore ensure you are lying in a comfortable stable position before treatment begins. Very anxious people can feel more pain.
INJURIES – Injuries to internal organs are very rare. There are certain points that should not be needled or only needled with great caution. A trained acupuncturist should be aware of these and therefore no injury is likely.
DROWSINESS – Some degree of drowsiness after acupuncture is fairly common. You should take care if you are going to be driving or operating machinery. It may be sensible to get someone to accompany you on your first session if you are worried about feeling drowsy after the treatment.
Does it Work?
Well its not a wonder cure that works every time. For some people it does has wonderful benefits and can completely relieve a persons symptoms. Sadly for others it seems to have no effect. It can be difficult to predict who will benefit and who will not. It can take a few treatments before an effect is noticed. However after around 4 treatments if you are feeling no effect however short-lived it is probably unlikely it will help you. Some people require a course of 6-8 treatments and this relieves their symptoms completely forever, others require “top-ups” after 4-6months to keep their symptoms from returning.
Where can I Get Acupuncture?
There are more and more acupuncturists opening clinics all round the country. I have never been to these Chinese acupuncturists so I cannot comment on the cost or their expertise. You can also get acupuncture from the NHS, some GPs are trained as are many physiotherapists. This treatment is free but obviously as with many NHS treatments there can be a waiting list. If going to a private clinic I would recommend talking to people who have been there and asking them about their opinion. When you go to the clinic ask them what qualifications they have and if they are registered with any of the acupuncture societies. You can check these on the internet. With acupuncture you need to be sure they are properly qualified and following safe practice especially where needles are involved.
I am a trained physiotherapist and I hate needles. I nearly faint when they take blood from me! So I never imagined that I would train to do acupuncture. However working in a ward where so many people are in pain and so many on high doses of painkillers that then give them more side-effects I wanted to do more to help them. As a student I had watched acupuncture treatments and was amazed at its effects but always dismissed it as something I could never do because of the needle issue. I had been thinking of it for a while when a course was advertised in Scotland. I spoke to another physiotherapist who used acupuncture and she assured me I would be fine and offered to put a few needles in me to see how it felt.
Well I wasn’t looking forward to it but I thought I really should give it a go so she put a few needles into my arm and my hand and it was fine. It didn’t hurt, I didn’t faint and I thought yes I think I can do it. So I did the training course, got the certificate and was ready to be released on to the general public. I don’t use acupuncture on a daily basis in my work as for a lot of my patients it isn’t appropriate. Patients need to be able to give informed consent to the treatment and some of my patients have dementia so I can’t use it. However on some of my patients I have used it especially on things like arthritic knees which it seems to work well with. I have to admit that I have used it sometimes and it hasn’t made any difference so we have had to use other things to treat the pain. I use it with family members but not with my husband who has quite a severe needle phobia and won’t even watch the needles go in someone else never mind me try to even approach him with one. It’s not for everyone but if it works then it’s a wonderful thing.
Some Points To Try
Before I leave you here is a point you can use on yourself and the wonderful thing is you don’t need to use needles. There is a point in your hand which is the major point for pain relief. If you hold your hand in front of you, for this we will demonstrate with the left hand but you can do it on both. Hold your thumb out to the side to you make an L shape with your thumb and index finger. Then pinch the web of skin between the finger and the thumb, not right at the edge where there is only skin but right in at the fleshy part between the two bones. Pressing on this for a few minutes helps relieve pain. If you have a headache then you are supposed to press on both hands at the same time, I have tried this but you really need another pair of hands! Well if you try it and it helps let me know!
Prostate cancer is the second largest killer and the most common cancer of males. Declining testosterone levels increase the ratio of estrogen to testosterone in aging males and prostate cancer risk increases accordingly. It is projected that all males following this pattern will ultimately die of prostate cancer, if they don’t succumb to another disease first.
Prostate is a Male Organ that Develops in Response to Testosterone
The prostate wraps around the male urethra and contributes fluid to semen. Development of the prostate is dependent on the male hormone testosterone and prostate cells have testosterone receptors. Testosterone stimulates prostate cancer growth and anti-testosterone therapies are the mainstay for prostate cancer chemotherapy.
Humans Produce Both Testosterone and Estrogen
Males and females produce both testosterone and estrogen. In both cases cholesterol is converted into testosterone-like molecules that are subsequently converted into the estrogens. Males have a higher testosterone to estrogen and in females, the ratio is reversed with a preponderance of estrogen. During the female menstrual cycle the ratio changes. Males (XY chromosomes) with defective receptors for testosterone have exaggerated, super-female appearance, because their tissues only respond to the estrogens that they produce.
Prostate Cells Have Estrogen Receptors
Estrogen receptors are the target for breast cancer therapy, e.g. tamoxifen, because of the obvious connection between breast development and estrogen production. Similarly, testosterone antagonist drugs were developed for the treatment of prostate cancer. Searches for estrogen receptors in the prostate were initially negative, because the only known estrogen receptor at the time was not present in the prostate. The identification of a second estrogen receptor, ER-beta, resulted in tests of estrogen antagonists on prostate cancer cells.
Prostate Cancer Is Inhibited by Anti-Estrogen Drugs
An anti-estrogen, ICI 182,780, was found to inhibit the growth of prostate cells. In further experiments, the mechanism of inhibition was examined to determine how estrogen stimulates prostate cancer growth, Home page. These studies revealed that the estrogen receptor, ER-beta, does not act directly to control expression of particular genes, but rather, it acts through interactions with the major inflammation transcription factor, NFkappaB. These recent studies suggest that therapies combining inhibition of both inflammation via NFkappaB, e.g. curcumin or thalidomide, may work in concert with appropriate estrogen receptor inhibitors for effective new therapies for currently untreatable prostate cancer. Intense research is in progress to evaluate the most effective combination of anti-testosterone, anti-estrogen and anti-inflammatory agents to attack particular forms of prostate cancer.
Today many men choose some form of external beam radiation therapy over surgery to treat their prostate cancer. But can a rising or falling PSA (prostate-specific antigen) level after radiation treatment predict whether the cancer will return?
According to a study published in the International Journal of Radiation Oncology/Biology/Physics (March 16, 2006), the answer is yes: The longer period of PSA fall and lower PSA nadir predicts a higher chance of disease-free survival, find more info.
Standard Care, Post Treatment
After radiation treatment, doctors typically measure the PSA level every three months in a patient for the first year, and every six months thereafter. During the first year or two, patients normally experience a decline in their PSA blood test score. If the PSA level steadily decreases and stays relatively level after reaching its low point, then the treatment is considered a success.
However, if the PSA reaches a low point and then begins to steadily rise, the patient may be having a reoccurrence of the cancer, which could require additional treatments such as a hormonal blockade.
The PSA Bounce
One exception is the phenomenon of the widely-seen PSA “bounce,” where the PSA level rises shortly after treatment. But this bounce does not indicate the cancer is returning. Nor does it suggest that the patient will die of prostate cancer any sooner than patients without a bounce, according to Eric M. Horiwitz, MD, from Fox Chase Cancer Center in Philadelphia, PA, in an article in Medscale Medical News.
Dr. Horowitz found that about 20 percent of patients who are treated with radiation therapy experience the non-threatening and temporary PSA bounce.
Other Key Findings In The Study
Patients who had lower PSA scores:
Experienced an eight-year disease-free survival rate of 75 percent, compared with only 18 percent for those with the highest PSA scores.
Had a 97 percent distant metastasis-free survival rate, compared with 73 percent for those with the highest PSA scores.
However, the study also indicated that, when a PSA is falling, there is no specific number that predicts future survivability.
“While there is no magic number for the PSA that guarantees that prostate cancer has been cured in an individual patient, in general, the lower the PSA number, the better chances that the cancer will not return or spread,” said Michael E. Ray, M.D., Ph.D., lead author of the study and a radiation oncologist at the University of Michigan Medical Center.
Higher Dose Radiation Raises Cure Rate
In the 2006 study — conducted on nearly 5,000 radiation patients treated in nine academic U.S. radiation oncology departments — standard doses for external beam radiation of the prostate were at or below 60 Gy.
Yet since then, radiation doses are often at or well above 70 Gy, due to the high-dose delivery systems in newer 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and Imaged Guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT). Studies have shown that a higher dose of radiation (at or above 70 Gy) significantly improves chances of the cancer not returning.